Citrus-Bacon Brussels Sprouts Salad

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Brussels sprouts: Love 'em or hate 'em, there is no in-between. At least, that's how it seems. Every time I mention them, I'm met with cries of disgust. And yet they're one of the most nutritious vegetables out there. Isn't that always how it goes? The better something is for you, the less appetizing it is. Well, after many years of force-feeding myself Brussels ...
The post Citrus-Bacon Brussels Sprouts Salad appeared first on Autoimmune Wellness.

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Having Irregular Periods? You May Have Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

Annex Naturopathic


Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome | Annex Naturopathic Clinic Toronto Naturopath


As one of the top naturopathic clinic in Toronto, we have a special focus in treating women's health issues.


We often discover that a significant amount of women today find themselves having irregular periods.


The cause can be for many reasons.


Although today we are going to discuss one important cause that women should be aware of -Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome(PCOS)


What is Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS)?


PCOS is a syndrome which is different than a disease. A disease is a pathological process that is well defined by what is causing it and the symptoms it causes.


On the other hand, a syndrome is a collection of symptoms we see together that are not necessarily caused by the same problem.


PCOShas symptoms relating to hormonal imbalances and problems with metabolism (how our body uses it's fuel).


PCOS is very common in women of child bearing years. As many as 1 in 10 women fit the criteria for diagnosis.


Women with PCOS will have a varying degree of symptoms.


Symptoms of PCOS


1. Irregular periods. Few or no menstrual periods over a the span of a year.


2. Changes in hair growth. Excess hair on the face, chest, back, stomach. Thinning head hair.


3. Breakouts that become inflamed.


4. Women who have PCOS may have difficulty getting pregnant.


5. Weight gain. Difficulty achieving ideal weight, even with diet and exercise.


Why does PCOS happen?


These are a few of the factors that influence the development of PCOS.


1. There is several genes associated with PCOS. If a pregnant mother had PCOS, her daughters have a significantly higher risk of developing PCOS.


2. Insulin resistance and obesity. When blood sugar is high, insulin (the hormone responsible for helping the body use and store sugar) doesn't work well.


The ovaries are very sensitive to insulin resistance and in response they don't produce the appropriate amount of hormones necessary for ovulation and the body has too much testosterone circulating.


3. Exposure to Endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Chemicals like BPA found in plastics alter the activity of sex hormones.


BPA is know to interact with estrogen receptors which will decrease the bodies ability to ovulate.


Irregular periods and PCOS | Annex Naturopathic Clinic Toronto Naturopath


Treatment of PCOS


Conventional Approaches include regulating the cycle through use of oral contraceptives, regulating blood sugar with medications like metformin and fertility treatment if the individual is having difficulty conceiving.


How Annex Naturopathic Clinic approach PCOS


Naturopathic doctors look at addressing the root causes of PCOS and treatment is revolved around naturally restoring hormonal balance through:



  1. Dietary and exercise recommendations that reduce insulin sensitivity and exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals.

  2. Nutritional supplementation that encourages insulin sensitivity and hormone balance.

  3. Herbal medicine that gently and effectively balances hormones and metabolism.

  4. Bioindentical hormones therapy if appropriate.


If you're concerned with hormonal irregularities, come see us at Annex Naturopathic Clinic for a comprehensive assessment and treatment plan to help your body get back in balance.



If you're curious to learn more about this subject or would like to consult with one of our NDs feel free to book a visit or contact us.


Yours in Health,





Annex Naturopathic Clinic

572 Bloor St W #201, Toronto, ON M6G 1K1

-https://goo.gl/maps/uVRBvcyoUa62






To discover more ways on health, wellness, and alternative medicine, please visit us here: Annex Naturopathic Clinic Toronto

Blood Alcohol Test Using Saliva

Promilless Takes the Guess Work Out of Gauging Sobriety in 2 Minutes


A Finnish company, Goodwiller, has developed an alcohol test which tests blood alcohol levels using saliva, in collaboration with VTT. The test is compact, fitting into a wallet or pocket and easy to use; it can indicate whether an individual is legally able to drive in a matter of minutes. Driving while under the influence of drugs and alcohol is a serious and concerning safety hazard for self and others, and often times use of alcohol changes perception of one's capabilities. Having a test which one can depend on takes the guess work out of it.


How the Intelligent Paper Test Works


The test, Promilless was created from biochemical ingredients and is conducted on intelligent paper. It's somewhat similar in design as an at home pregnancy test, or a urine dipstick, with a long strip to hold onto and 2 areas for the saliva sample to come into contact with at one end. The 2 collection areas are demarcated by 2 green lines, and 2 yellow lines. When saliva comes into contact with the collection areas the area in between the two green lines will turn green, and if blood alcohol level is above 0.2% the area in yellow will also turn green. If there is no change in the yellow zone then blood alcohol level is below 0.2%. It takes about 2 minutes.


Test Indicates Blood Alcohol Levels at 0.2%


It is very interesting that the test indicates blood alcohol levels at 0.2%, a level of intoxication which even in Finland, where the test was developed, is far above the legal limit to operate a motor vehicle (0.05% is the legal limit in Finland). The legal limits for most places in the world range from 0% to .08%, so the test, while it would certainly indicate that you were unsafe to drive if both areas were activated, may give a false sense of security. However, it could certainly have its utility for gauging level of sobriety up to this point, and deterring individuals from driving when they clearly are not safe to do so.


https://promilless.com


Image Copyright: excitator / 123RF Stock Photo



Node Smith, associate editor for NDNR, is a fifth year naturopathic medical student at NUNM, where he has been instrumental in maintaining a firm connection to the philosophy and heritage of naturopathic medicine among the next generation of docs. He helped found the first multi-generational experiential retreat, which brings elders, alumni, and students together for a weekend camp-out where naturopathic medicine and medical philosophy are experienced in nature. Three years ago he helped found the non-profit,Association for Naturopathic ReVitalization (ANR),for which he serves as the board chairman. ANR has a mission to inspire health practitioners to embody the naturopathic principles through experiential education. Node also has a firm belief that the next era of naturopathic medicine will see a resurgence of in-patient facilities which use fasting, earthing, hydrotherapy and homeopathy to bring people back from chronic diseases of modern living; he is involved in numerous conversations and projects to bring about this vision.


The post Blood Alcohol Test Using Saliva appeared first on NaturalPath.

Botanical of the Month St. John's Wort

Annex Naturopathic


St. John's Wort | Annex Naturopathic Clinic | Toronto Naturopath


As anaturopathic clinic and dispensary, we like to educate ourpatients on how to take inlocal herbs and foods as part oftheir lifestyles for long term health.


Each month we've beenhighlighting a local, seasonal, Ontario herb in order to help you understand and familiarize yourself with useful medical herbs and foods that grow in our backyards.


Last month we looked at Red Clover


This month we take a look at St. John's Wort.


What is St. John's Wort?


St. John's Wort is a common plant that has been naturalized in North America, and can be found in Ontario (easier to find North of Toronto).


Hypericum perforatum displays beautiful yellow flowers from June to August. It grows up to 1 meter high and has small, oval leaves which may have small black dots.


The fresh flowers contain glands that when crushed, will stain a dark vibrant red-purple colour, representing one of the key chemical ingredients of the plant, hypericin.


This colour is greatly represented in tincture and oil extracts of St. John's Wort. I saw an abundance of this gorgeous plant on a relaxing camping trip in the Lake Superior region, and is one of the most common herbal remedies I use in practice.


Parts Used: Aerial parts, bud and flowers (dried and fresh)


Uses of St. John's Wort


St. John's Wort is not typically eaten but is used for medicine. Ithas a number of different medicinal uses and has a strong affinity to the nervous system.


Traditionally, when taking internally, St. John's Wort has been used as a sedative to treat nervous anxiety, and also is used to treat neuralgic pain.


Externally it's used as an anti-inflammatory to treat sunburns, promote wound healing, treat bruises, and viral skin eruptions (ie Shingles).


Hypercum perforatum has been traditionally used to clear liver heat making it a useful remedy for liver inflammation (hepatitis).


Depression


There has been extensive research on the anti-depressant properties of St. John's Wort, with many clinical trails exhibiting the benefit of this herb in the treatment for depression.


This plant has been found to provide anti-depressant actions, and though hypericin, pseudohypericin, and hyperformin are the most-studied chemical constituents of St. John's Wort, many other constituents in this herb have also been found to have this property.


Isolating and administrating one constituent alone does not seem to provide the same anti-depressant effect as using the whole plant. It is possible the combined (synergistic) action of many chemical constituents in this plant is what is responsible for the strong influence on the neurological system.


Flavonols and xanthines are other constituents found to have anti-depressant activity. This is a beautiful representation of the importance of wholism where the entire plant is the of value, not only one microscopic ingredient of the plant.


St. John's wort has been found to affect neurotransmitter activity by inhibiting reuptake of serotonin, GABA, noradrenaline, dopamine and L-glutamate. Hypericum perforatum also inhibits binding of these neurotransmitters to their receptors.


This is a similar mechanism to how prescription anti-depressants work - inhibiting reuptake and binding of neurotransmitters. Hypericum perforatum also appears to inhibit the activity of enzymes important in mood regulation, such as monoamine oxidase (MAO-A and MAO-B), and catechol-O- methyltransferase (COMT), both involved in neurotransmitter processing and elimination.


St John's Wort also is considered an anti-inflammatory - increased levels inflammation have been strongly associated with depression, and the anti-inflammatory action of St. John's Wort presents another reason for the strong anti-depressant property of this herb.


Infections


Hypericum perforatum has been found to be active against a number of bacterial microorganisms, but it's most powerful effect appears to be against viruses.


The anti-viral action is specific to enveloped viruses, possibly through preventing the fusing of the viral envelope to the host cell.


Enveloped viruses include herpes viruses, varicella zoster (chicken pox and shinges) virus, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-bar (mononucleosis, kissing) virus, hepatitis virus, HIV and many other viruses.


St. John's Wort Botanical | Annex Naturopathic Clinic | Toronto Naturopath


Ways to take St. John's Wort


Hypericum perforatum is commercially available to take in a standardize capsule containing an alcohol extract of the herb, typically with a specific dose of the constituent hypericin.


This is the form that has been used in many clinical trials that have shown great benefit of this herb in the treatment of depression.


It is also efficacious in tincture form. This is my preferred method as less processing of the herb preserves the essence and energy of the plant.


An oil can be made fresh flowers and leaves to be used topically as an anti-inflammatory and anti-viral.


Teas and decoctions are also made from this plant and may be best used for its anti-inflammatory, astringent and pain-relieving effects.


Clinical trails have shown alcoholic extracts of St. John's Wort being most efficacious for treating depression, so the tea may not be the best choice if being used for this condition.


Caution


Do not use St. John's Wort without consulting a physician who is familiar with herbal medicine.


Never combine St. John's Wort with anti-depressant medication as this can potentiate the effect of the medication, potentially leading to overdose symptoms. Anti-depressants medications are not just used for depression, but can be used to treat migraines, vertigo, and sleep disordersso it's important not to combine herbal medicine with any medication without consulting a professional.


This plant increases the activity of a liver enzyme called CYP3A4, involved with phase 1 liver detoxication, therefore should not be taken if on medication that is metabolized by this enzymes as it can reduce the efficacy of the medication.


Hypericum perforatum can potentially (though rarely) cause photosensitivity in susceptible individuals, causing skin redness, so be cautious of this effect and discontinue if it occurs.



If you're curious to learn morewhether this herb might be suitable for you,consult with one of our NDs by booking a visit or contacting us.


Yours in Health,





Annex Naturopathic Clinic

572 Bloor St W #201, Toronto, ON M6G 1K1

-https://goo.gl/maps/uVRBvcyoUa62






References:



  1. Hoffman D. Medical Herbalism. Rochester, Vermont: Healing Arts Press, 2003.

  2. World Health Organization. WHO Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants, Volume 2, World Health Organization, 1997

  3. King, J. King's American Dispensatory. Ohio Valley Company, 1898


To read more tips on health, wellness, and alternative medicine, please visit us here: Naturopathic Clinic, Annex Toronto

Why Do Onions Make Us Cry?

To find additional information on health, wellness, and alternative medicine, please visit us here:goo.gl/EHF2R8-


By Dr. Mercola
If you plan on making a salad, some kind of soup or a savory stir-fry, onions will most likely be part of the equation. You might also slice them into rings to place on sandwiches, or saut them gently in coconut oil or grass fed butter until they're soft, translucent and absolutely delicious. But something else may be likely as well: When you're cutting or chopping them, before you get very far into the first onion, you're very likely to find your nose twitching and tears making your eyes smart.
Medical News Today suggests onions make your eyes spring a leak when you cut into them (or, to a lesser degree, other potent-smelling members of the allium family, such as garlic, chives, scallions and leeks) to discourage greedy predators from eating them. Whatever the...
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How To Treat Chronic Headaches With Diet & Lifestyle Changes

Annex Naturopathic


how to treat chronic headaches | Annex Naturopathic Clinic | Toronto Naturopath


I can't count how many times a patient has come in to our naturopathic doctor clinic with one complaint, and only when asked, they non-chalantly mention they suffer headaches on a daily basis: but I just take Tylenol and it goes away, or it's normal for me, or I've had them all my life.


Let me just set something straight: Headaches are not normal, and the source should be treated.


What are headaches?


A number of medicine-based websites define "headache" as any pain of the neck and head area.


Simple definitions equals simple treatments right? Pain=painkiller?


If I were to rewrite that definition, I would probably add that headaches are a symptom of a underlying cause.


Even reputable medical resources don't recognize the cause for common headaches, only really delving in to what drugs may suppress the pain.


Finding the cause of any symptom is the essence and root of treatment, and finding and treating cause may enable one to be rid of all these nasty symptoms.


What are the causes of headaches?


We want to make sure that the causes are not life-threatening or serious.


Your healthcare provider will determine this through a thorough intake of the history and character of the headaches, as well as a physical examination of your neurological system.


If there are any warning signs, you will be referred for blood tests and possibly CT or MRI scans of the head.


If everything is clear, your healthcare practitioner will categorize your headache based on its characteristics. These include:



  • Cluster

  • Tension

  • Migraine

  • Chronic daily headache Types included in this are: chronic migraine, chronic tension-type, new daily persistent, and hemicrania continua, all defined by the type of pain.


Chronic daily headaches are the most common headaches experienced by people and are the focus of this article.


The World Health Organization (WHO) states that 1 out 20 adults suffer from these types of headaches every day.


Its causes can be broken down to the basics: diet, lifestyle and nutrition. Some causes of common headaches include:



  • Stress

  • Poor dietary habits, and conditions associated such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease (high blood pressure)

  • Smoking

  • Nutrient deficiency

  • Dehydration

  • Muscle tension posture

  • Eyesight

  • Poor sleep

  • Food allergies


Now does it make sense that popping 4-8 painkillers a day would target these causes?


It may temporarily decrease the pain, but the underlying causes are still there. Diet provides the basis of the environment by which your body functions, and a poor diet only causes poor bodily function.


Things like coffee, soda, pop, and fast foods are not only dehydrating and lack nutrients, but can spike blood sugar levels after consumption, and consequently cause insulin levels to rise.


When insulin rises, it causes a massive drop in blood sugar, leading to blood flow changes to the brain, causing headaches.


A poor diet also makes one susceptible to high blood pressure (a leading cause of headaches), thereby increasing the risk for cardiovascular disease.


Refined sugars can also cause hormone imbalances (such as cortisol and epinephrine) leading to problems with stress, sleep, and energy.


Stress can also cause tightening of the neck and shoulder muscles, as well as increasing blood pressure, both of which contribute to recurring headaches.


Headaches can be a good indicator that it may be time to improve your dietary habits to prevent chronic disease.


A diet full of junk not only has negative effects on blood sugar, but also causes havoc on your gastrointestinal system.


The intestinal lining is often damaged due to poor nutrition, leading to food sensitivities and decreased nutrient absorption.


Also, the good bacterial flora is often compromised, and the increased sugars feed unwanted microbes such as yeast, allowing them to grow and cause gastrointestinal problems.


Food allergies can manifest in a number of different ways, such as skin conditions, asthma, allergies, and more.


But more often than not, symptoms could be as unclear as fatigue and headaches.


ways to treat chronic headaches | Annex Naturopathic Clinic | Toronto Naturopath


Ways treat headaches


As you can see, these are several reasons why headaches may be a good indicator of your overall health.


A good diet not only prevents and treats all that was mentioned above, but also improves the health of your adrenal glands (and cortisol release) allowing you to cope with stress efficiently, decreasing your future risk of chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease.


Naturopathic doctors are skilled in determining these causes as well as implementing treatments that can reverse these effects, without the use of synthetic pain killers.


Diet and lifestyle modifications are essential to all aspects of health, and while they improve, so do the headaches. Here are a few tips for preventing headaches during the day:



  • Keep hydrated drink AT LEAST 6 cups of water a day

  • Decrease snacks and drinks loaded with refined sugars (candy, pop/soda, etc)

  • Make sure to be replenished with proper electrolytes, especially after strenuous exercise

  • Reduce coffee consumption to 1x/day and replace extra cups with lower-caffeinated teas such as green tea

  • Get a good night's sleep

  • Relieve stress through mediation, exercise, spend time with those whose company you enjoy

  • Take breaks from your computer during the day to relieve eye strain

  • Get fresh air

  • Ensure your digestion is working optimally - weak digestion equals poor absorption of nutrients, where deficiencies can lead to headaches


Naturopathic doctors can also perform treatments that provide symptomatic relief to headaches while we are improving the diet, such as acupuncture, botanicals and homeopathic medicines.


Please contact your healthcare provider if:



  • If you experience an abrupt, severe headache (feels like a Thunderclap)

  • If you're present with fever, stiff neck, numbness, tingling, visual disturbances, confusion, trouble speaking

  • Associated with seizures

  • Progressive headaches, associated with cough, or exertion

  • Progressive headaches after a head injury



If you're curious to learn more about this subject or would like to consult with one of our NDs feel free to book a visit or contact us.


Yours in Health,





Annex Naturopathic Clinic

572 Bloor St W #201, Toronto, ON M6G 1K1

-https://goo.gl/maps/uVRBvcyoUa62






References:



  1. World Health Organization [homepage on the Internet]: World Health Organization (WHO); c2010 [updated 2004 March; cited 2010 Feb 2].Available from: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs277/en/

  2. The Mayo Clinic [homepage on the Internet]: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER); c1998-2010 [updated 2009 June 23; cited 2010 Feb 2]. Available from: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/chronic-daily-headaches/DS00646/DSECTION=symptoms

  3. Beers MH, Porter RS, Jones TV, Kaplan JL, Berkwits M, editors. The Merck manual of diagnosis and therapy. 18th ed. Whitehouse Station (NJ): Merck Research Laboratories; 2006.

  4. Gardner, L. and Reiser, S. "Effects of Dietary Carbohydrate on Fasting Levels of Human Growth Hormone and Cortisol." Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. 1982;169:36-40.

  5. Wright RJ, Frier BM. Vascular disease and diabetes: is hypoglycaemia an aggravating factor? Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2008 Jul-Aug;24(5):353-63


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How To Treat Estrogen Dominance Through Diet And Lifestyle

Annex Naturopathic


How to treat estrogen dominance | Annex Naturopathic Clinic Toronto Naturopaths


Estrogen dominance is a sinister hormone imbalance that typically isn't caused by one single factor.


Our previous two articles - What Are The Causes of Estrogen Dominance?, and Estrogen Dominance: The Hormone Imbalance You're Told You Don't Have - outlined the main reasons why someone may have estrogen dominance and the health conditions associated with having poor estrogen metabolism.


Understanding that liver health, diet, inflammation and environmental exposures all play a crucial role in your estrogen health, here are a few simple changes you can make in order to optimize your estrogen status


1. Support liver health


We have a whole articleon why liver health is important, and now we know that liver health is also important in preventing estrogen dominance.


Improve your liver health by eating clean, emphasizing consumption of bitter leafy greens, drink a good amount of water and reduce your toxin load by reducing preservative-laden foods.


2. Eat Brassicae family (Cabbage) vegetables


This food group is particularly important in estrogen dominance.


Brassicae family vegetables contains a compound called Indole-3-carbinol (I3C), which has been found to favour healthy phase 1 conversion of estrogen to 2-OH-estrogens in women, which we know is protective against estrogen dominant conditions, while decreasing other metabolites (16-OH-estrogens), known to exacerbate estrogen dominant conditions (1-3).


This group of veggies are a great source of fibre, which is also great for binding and clearing estrogens, contain tonnes of antioxidants that help protect the liver against oxidative damage.


Members of this family include:



  • Broccoli

  • Cabbage

  • Cauliflower

  • Brussel sprouts

  • Kale

  • Rutabaga

  • Rapini

  • Kohlrabi

  • Bokchoy

  • Collard Greens


I always suggest lightly cooking these vegetables before consuming - raw forms can be hard on the stomach and can also slow down thyroid function.


3. Reduce stress


Practicing stress-relieving activities is good for overall health.


The stress hormone cortisol, when secreted in excess, will alter blood sugar metabolism - increasing glucose and insulin.


High insulin states perpetuate inflammation, and promote obesity, two risk factors for estrogen dominance.


Imbalanced cortisol on its own has been linked to higher inflammatory states. Progesterone, the hormone that balances estrogen and regulates its effects, is also lowered by high cortisol and inflammation.


Try reducing stress by exercising, practicing mediation and mindfulness.


You can read more about how to reduce stress from aprevious article.


How to treat hormonal imbalance | Annex Naturopathic Clinic Toronto Naturopaths


4. Eat clean meats and reduce meat consumption


Diet full of poor quality saturated fat and trans-fats promote inflammation - poor quality meats tend to be riddled with high amounts of these type fats.


Animals fed grain and corn aren't as lean and tend to be fed antibiotics and injected with hormones to increase their weight for greater profit.


These added chemicals not only increase the chemical load on our body when we consume these foods, the added hormones add estrogen to our bodies, promoting estrogen dominance!


Go with grass-fed, pasture-raised meats, or at least try to pick meats that are raised hormone and antibiotic-free.


Compounds found in well-cooked meat (heterocyclic amines and metabolites) can bind to and active estrogen receptors (4).To control levels of inflammation related to increased meat consumption, try eating 4-5 ounces, high quality red meat 1-2x a week, poultry up to 3x/week, and fish 2-3x/week.


Focus on legumes and eggs to fill the protein for the rest of your meals. If you go with soy, pick organic soy, and eat 1 cup cooked 1-2x/week for a balanced phytoestrogenic effect.


Dairy should be avoided as many people are sensitive to dairy and it's proteins (not just lactose), and milk from pregnant cows are very high in estrogen.


If you choose to eat dairy, go for ethically raised, organic cheeses and yogurt as they are better for the digestion, and stay away from liquid milk forms as a whole.


5. Avoid chemical products


As we saw, there are a number of chemical compounds that mimic estrogen in the body, increase aromatase, are liver toxic, and in general are carcinogenic.


Chemicals specifically found to lead to estrogen-dominant conditions, specifically cancers, include (4):



  • Found in cosmetic products and soaps:

    • metalloestrogens such as aluminum salts

    • parabens

    • cyclosiloxanes

    • triclosan (found in hand sanitizer)

    • phthalates

    • musk

    • UV sunscreens



  • Plastic packaging:

    • Styrene - a widely used plastic for food packaging

    • Bisphenol-A (BPA): the WORST - found to activate aromatase, lower progesterone effect, bind and activate estrogen




6. Balance your progesterone


Many women are walking around with low levels of progesterone, typically due to stress - which could be the biggest reason why estrogen dominance is present.


Symptoms of low progesterone include



  • PMS symptoms such as depression (intense), breast tenderness in the upper outer quadrants of the breast, acne, migraines and night sweats

  • Pre-menstrual spotting or spotting throughout the cycle (breakthrough bleeding)

  • Many women come in feeling that their PMS symptoms start long before 1 week before their menstrual flow - typically starting right after ovulation. This is a classic sign progesterone deficiency.


If you suspect that you might have estrogen dominance, progesterone deficiency, or you're unsure, book with one of us - we are able to provide a thorough assessment on your hormonal health.


We also offer testing to assess estrogen dominance through measuring the different estrogen metabolites (such as 2-OH, 4-OH, 16-OH) through urine testing.



If you're curious to learn more about this subject or would like to consult with one of our NDs feel free to book a visit or contact us.


Yours in Health,





Annex Naturopathic Clinic

572 Bloor St W #201, Toronto, ON M6G 1K1

-https://goo.gl/maps/uVRBvcyoUa62






References



  1. Rogan EG. The natural chemopreventive compound indole-3-carbinol: state of the science. In Vivo. 2006 Mar-Apr;20(2):221-8.

  2. Michnovicz JJ. Changes in levels of urinary estrogen metabolites after oral indole-3-carbinol treatment in humans. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1997 May 21;89(10):718-23.

  3. Reed GA., et. al. A phase I study of indole-3- carbinol in women: tolerability and effects. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005 Aug;14(8):1953-60.

  4. Fucic A et. al. Environmental exposure to xenoestrogens and oestrogen related cancers: reproductive system, breast, lung, kidney, pancreas, and brain. Environ Health. 2012 Jun 28;11 Suppl 1:S8


To see additional ideas about health, wellness, and alternative medicine, please visit us here: naturopathic clinic

What Are The Causes of Estrogen Dominance?

The Causes of Estrogen Dominance | Annex Naturopathic Clinic Toronto Naturopath


Our last article outlinedwhat estrogen dominance is, and how liver health plays a role in estrogen metabolism and estrogen dominance.


There are a number of other causes for estrogen dominance - many of which are influenced by your day to day lifestyle.


It may be surprising to you to find out that many daily exposures can increase your chance of developing estrogen dominance.


Inflammation


Inflammation is the worst.


This chronic condition has been tied to basically all disease - heart disease, cancer, mental health conditions, to name a few. Inflammation plays a crucial role in the development of estrogen dominance.


As we know from the previous article, proper liver health is crucial for proper estrogen metabolism, and one way inflammation can impact estrogen dominance is burdening liver function.


However, there's another way inflammation can directly affect estrogen dominance - through activation of an enzyme called aromatase, a cytochrome P450 enzyme active in the liver, skin, bones, ovaries, adipose tissue, adrenal glands, brain and breasts - everywhere where estrogen has an effect on the tissue.


Aromatase is an enzyme that is key for estrogen synthesis in a healthy biological female and works in regulation with the body to keep estrogen conversion from androgens healthy and limited.


Estrogen dominant conditions, such as endometriosis, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, are associated with increased and dysregulated aromatase activity(1). There has been direct relationship between inflammation and aromatase activity, with much of the research looking in to how obesity, a disease of chronic inflammation, activates aromatase.


The link between inflammation and increased aromatase is a vicious cycle - increased adipose tissue is riddled with inflammatory structures (crown-like structures) which secrete pro-inflammatory signals.


These inflammatory signals increase aromatase activity in the adipose tissues, which in turn increases estrogen production. Excessive estrogen can cause problems with blood sugar (insulin resistance) and can mess with your hormone leptin, the hormone that makes you feel full - therefore promotes obesity.


These inflammatory crown-like-structures were not only found in adipose tissue but in breast tissue in overweight-obese women undergoing surgery for breast cancer.(2).


But it's not just related to weight - both obese and non-obese women with marked inflammation (detected on bloodwork), and conditions of inflammation such as insulin resistance (high blood sugar) are at higher risk of developing breast cancer through increased aromatase activity (3,4).


Pain occurs typically in response to inflammation, so it makes sense that if estrogen dominance is an inflammatory condition, why symptoms are centred around pain (painful periods, painful breasts).


Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals


There are a number of environmental causes for increases of aromatase activity. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical commonly found in plastic that has been found to increase both aromatase and inflammation.


BPA has been deemed an ovarian, uterine and reproductive toxicant - therefore do not consume! (5) Other causes such as alcohol, chemical home care products, the birth control pill, smoking and pesticides (glyphosates) all increase aromatase activity (1).

BPA has also been found to increase the production of the bad estrogen metabolite, 4-OH-estrogen, compared to 2-OH pathway, which we know increases risk of estogen-dominant conditions (remember the last article?)


Not only do these chemicals increase aromatase activity, they can directly bind to estrogen receptors, stronger than actual estrogen, causing excessive estrogen-like effects on the tissue.


These are called xenoestrogens, can play a large role in the development in estrogen-related cancers such as breast cancers, uterine and ovarian cancer (7).


Xenoestrogens are a group of chemicals found in environmental pollutants (pesticides), chemical products (BPA in plastic) cosmetic products [parabens, metalloestrogens (cadium, aluminum), phathlates, musk etc].


Estrogen Dominance Hormonal Imbalance | Annex Naturopathic Clinic Toronto Naturopath


Progesterone Imbalance


This hormone is an important factor in estrogen dominance.


Progesterone is responsible for balancing estrogen, so appropriate levels of progesterone are important for preventing estrogen-dominant conditions.


Just like estrogen, progesterone is affected by inflammation - an inflammatory molecule called prostaglandin-E2 (PGE-2), not only stimulates aromatase, but also blocks progesterone receptor expression, therefore reducing the progesterone effect.


Progesterone can also be reduced in the face of high stress - this is because progesterone and the stress hormone cortisol, are made from the same ingredient, pregnenolone. When you're stressed, your body needs to make more cortisol, so progesterone production suffers.


High cortisol also encourages inflammation, as we know further encourages estrogen dominance by increasing aromatase, and blocking progesterone.


So now that we know environmental factors, stress and inflammation can also contribute to estrogen dominance, the next article will centre around how we can improve estrogen, progesterone balance and reduce inflammation through diet and lifestyle methods.



If you're curious to learn more about this subject or would like to consult with one of our NDs feel free to book a visit or contact us.


Yours in Health,



Annex Naturopathic Clinic

572 Bloor St W #201, Toronto, ON M6G 1K1

-https://goo.gl/maps/uVRBvcyoUa62






References



  • Patel S. Disruption of aromatase homeostasis as the cause of a multiplicity of ailments: A comprehensive review.J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2017 Apr;168:19-25.

  • Morris P et. al. Inflammation and increased aromatase expression occur in the breast tissue of obese women with breast cancer. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2011 Jul;4(7):1021-9.

  • Brown KA et. al. Menopause Is a Determinant of Breast Aromatase Expression and Its Associations With BMI, Inflammation, and Systemic Markers.J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2017 May 1;102(5):1692-1701.

  • Iyengar NM., et. al. Metabolic Obesity, Adipose Inflammation and Elevated Breast Aromatase in Women with Normal Body Mass Index.Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2017 Apr;10(4):235-243

  • Peretz J et. al Bisphenol a and reproductive health: update of experimental and human evidence, 2007-2013.Environ Health Perspect. 2014 Aug;122(8):775-86

  • Kim EJ et. al Association between urinary levels of bisphenol-A and estrogen metabolism in Korean adults.Sci Total Environ. 2014 Feb 1;470-471:1401-7

  • Fucic A et. al. Environmental exposure to xenoestrogens and oestrogen related cancers: reproductive system, breast, lung, kidney, pancreas, and brain.Environ Health. 2012 Jun 28;11 Suppl 1:S8


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Estrogen Dominance: The Hormone Imbalance You're Told You Don't Have

Hormone Imbalance & Estrogen Dominance | Annex Naturopathic Clinic Toronto


As a female naturopathic doctor, I have a a great deal of experience in women's health issues. Much of it treating conditions likehormone imbalances andtheir effects on our quality of life.


Hormone imbalances are a complicated thing though.


Often times women will feel that their hormones are off, but after blood work and basic analysis, it's likely that everything will come back normal.


So how is it that hormones are normal, yet one day your body feels completely off, or that you one day find that you have fibroids? or endometriosis? or fertility issues?


What are some of the signs and symptoms that could lead you to potentially prevent and actually treat these conditions, instead of coming up with band-aid solutions to cover up the symptoms?


What is Estrogen Dominance?


Estrogen dominance is a hormonal condition that is often never detected in conventional medicine - the term dominance may indicate that a high level of estrogen would be detected on routine blood work, but this is not often the case.


In fact, estrogen typically comes back within normal range in women who have estrogen dominance - how is this so?


This is because estrogen dominance is a functional hormonal imbalance and is not a excess condition.


A functional hormonal imbalance indicates that while the body is clearly performing daily as it should, there are signs and symptoms that one experiences, whether it be mild or debilitating, indicate that the overall system is compromised.


This may not be a big deal, but if undetected and left untreated, can lead to chronic disease.


Signs and Symptoms of Estrogen Dominance


The interesting thing about estrogen dominance is that it's highly common in our society - many women experience symptoms of estrogen dominance monthly, some more severely than others.


The typical symptoms of estrogen dominance include:



  • PMS symptoms such as irritability, breast tenderness/swelling, premenstrual pain, acne, constipation, bloating, headaches

  • Painful periods

  • Irregular periods

  • Insomnia

  • Cyclical moodiness


Many women experience these symptoms and are told they are normal.


They are considered normal because these symptoms are a societal norm, meaning that many people have these symptoms so therefore it's normal, but from a health perspective, this is not normal!


If you have mild symptoms, it's likely that you're fine, but if any of these symptoms become severe and affect your day to day living, you definitely should consider being assessed for estrogen dominance.


Mainstream treatment for these symptoms usually involve being on hormonal contraception (birth control), anti-depressants, or pain-medications, and while these may help control your symptoms, none of these solutions actually target the root cause.


If the root cause isn't treated, it can lead to chronic disease


Hormone Imbalance & Hormone Tests | Annex Naturopathic Clinic Toronto


Associated Symptoms


When you have increased amounts of estrogen in your body, this can highly affect estrogen-sensitive tissues.


The tissues that are most affected are in the breast and uterus.


Why is breast tenderness and swelling caused by estrogen-dominance?


It's because your breast tissue is hyper-stimulated.


Why do you feel pain during your menstrual flow, or experience extremely heavy flows when you have estrogen-dominance?


This is because your uterine lining is hyper-stimulated by estrogen dominance.


When these tissues are hyper-stimulated, that leads to cell proliferation - long term cell-proliferation in the breast can lead to breast cancer.


Long-term cell proliferation in the uterus is called endometrial hyperplasia, which is a risk factor for uterine fibroids, endometriosis and uterine cancer.


What causes estrogen dominance?


Estrogen dominance is when there is an abundance of estrogen wrecking havoc on the body that isn't being balanced by other hormones, or properly cleared by the liver.


Reasons for why someone can have estrogen dominances are stemmed from:



  1. Biochemical imbalances and genetic-related dysfunction of liver detoxification

  2. Increased estrogen production due to chemical exposure and inflammation

  3. Relative excess due to another hormone deficiency

  4. Environmental and dietary exposure to xenoestrogens.


I will go through each of these reasons in detail inupcoming articles.


Today we will focus on liver detoxification.


Estrogen and liver detoxification


Estrogen is activated and then detoxified by the liver.


Liver detoxification occurs in phases.


Phase 1 Liver Detoxification


Phase 1 is responsible for exposing a hydroxyl-group (OH) to the estrogen (estrone E1 for this discussion) molecule, which breaks it down to many different estrogen metabolites with this OH group.


Each metabolite has it's own impact and function on the body. When the liver is working properly, it breaks estrogen down so the ratio of these metabolites favour optimal estrogen effect: an abundance of the protective 2-OH-E1 metabolite.


When the liver is having problems with phase 1, then it may favour the production of other estrogen metabolites, ones that have carcinogenic (cancer-causing) effects on the estrogen-sensitive tissue - these metabolites are 16-OH-E1 and 4-OH-E1.


The reason why the liver may favour the production of some metabolites versus the other comes down to which enzymes are activated. 2-OH-E1 is produce through the CYP1A1 enzyme, 4-OH-E1 through CYP1B1 and 16-OH-E1 CYP3A4, all of these are part of Phase 1 enzyme system called the Cytochrome P450 system.


One could have a genetic abnormality in the enzyme for 2-OH-E1 (CYP1A1), or could be lacking the essential cofactors to the enzyme, rendering the enzyme more sluggish and unable to keep up with 2-OH-E1 production.


One could also be exposed to environmental toxins that can also render the enzyme functionally slow, or simply have a diet that isn't rich in foods that favour the production of 2-OH-E1.


Or for some reason, the enzymes for 4 and 16-OH-E1 can be upregulated, favouring their production over 2-OH-E1.


Phase 2Liver Detoxification


Phase 2is all about conjugation - binding the now hydrolyzed estrogen to a methyl-group to exert further effects of the body and to prepare the estrogen for excretion out of the body.


2-OH-E1 and 4-OH-E1 are conjugated by the same enzyme called COMT - this enzyme is essential for turning these in to 2 and 4 -methoxy-E1. 2-methoxy-E1 is protective to the body, while 4-methoxy-E1 is neutralized by this process.


COMT is also important for producing antioxidants by the liver, which are protective against cancers. Therefore, if this enzyme is dysfunctional (for reasons as suggested for the other enzymes above), then the protective and neutralizing effects are diminished.


In fact, studies found that women who have genetic abnormalities in the COMT gene had higher risk for estrogen-related disease, such as uterine fibroids, endometriosis, breast and uterine cancer (see below for references).


This genetic susceptibility also has been found to be dependent on ethnicity - for example women of African descent being the one of the most susceptible groups for uterine fibroids.


What we do know is that liver health is important for regulation of estrogen-metabolism and can play a significant role on how we develop estrogen-related disease.


Our phase 1 and phase 2 health decline as we age, our exposure to environmental pollutants and our nutrition. Take a look at our article on Liver Health to find out ways we can improve the strength and functionality of our detoxification processes, potentially improving our estrogen health.


Next week we will go through how inflammation, and other hormone imbalances can be associated with estrogen dominance and nutritional and herbal strategies to improve our overall hormonal health and to prevent chronic disease.







If you're curious to learn more about this subject or would like to consult with one of our NDs feel free to book a visit or contact us.


Yours in Health,



Dr. Tanya Lee, N.D




Annex Naturopathic Clinic

572 Bloor St W #201, Toronto, ON M6G 1K1

-https://goo.gl/maps/uVRBvcyoUa62






References


1) Shen Y et. al. Role of single nucleotide polymorphisms in estrogen-metabolizing enzymes and susceptibility to uterine leiomyoma in Han Chinese: a case-control study.J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2014 Apr;40(4):1077-84.


2)Huang CS et. al. Breast cancer risk associated with genotype polymor- phism of the estrogen-metabolizing genes CYP17, CYP1A1, and COMT: a multigenic study on cancer susceptibility. Cancer Res 1999. 59:48704875


3) Al-Hendy A, Salama SA., Catechol-O-methyltransferase polymorphism is associated with increased uterine leiomyoma risk in different ethnic groups.J Soc Gynecol Investig. 2006 Feb;13(2):136-44.


4) Zhao XM., et. al. Polymorphism of catechol-o-methyltransferase gene in relation to the risk of endometrial cancer. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi.2007.42:116119


5)Juo SH, et. al., CYP17, CYP1A1 and COMT polymorphisms and the risk of adenomyosis and endometriosis in Taiwanese women. Hum Re-prod 2006. 21:14981502


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Botanical of the Month Red Clover (Trifolium Pratense)

Botanical of the Month - Red Clover | Annex-Naturopathic-Clinic-Toronto-Naturopathic-Doctor


As a Toronto naturopath, I like to educate my patients on how to incorporate local herbs and foods into their lifestyles for long term health.


Each month I'll be highlighting a local, seasonal, Ontario herb in order to help you understand and familiarize yourself with useful medical herbs and food that grow right outside your door.


You will be able to recognize these otherwise known weeds as powerful medicine that grow in harmony with your everyday surroundings.


We're seeing Red Clover (Trifolium pratense)everywhere!


My friend and I spotted these flowers earlier this July on one of our hikes and since then I've been seeing them on neighbour's lawns, parks, along the west Toronto railpath, even in one coming up through a sidewalk crack.


This is one of my favourite herbs to use in practice.


Red Clover is a perennial plant originating from Europe, Africa and West Asia, but has been naturalized all over the world.


It's characterized by its dark pink-purple flowering head, and trifoliate leaves, and grows to be about 20-80cm tall.


This plant is actually considered a legume/bean plant, being part of the Fabaceae/Papilionaceae family, which is home to many commonly known legumes such as peas, chickpeas, lentils and many beans.


Parts Used: Flowers heads


Uses for Red Clover


Edibility


Trifolium pratense flowers can be pulled off and eaten. The flower parts stimulate the salivary glands, making it great for chewing on when you're thirsty, or parched and don't have immediate access to water.


It can also be enjoyed as a sweet tea.


Medicine


Red clover exerts its actions best in females and children.


Detoxification and lymphatic drainage


Traditionally, red clover has been considered a blood purifier or alterative meaning that it cleans out and regulates the body.


This action refers to the specific ability of red clover to remove unwanted toxins (dead tissue, inflammatory molecules) from the blood through lymphatic stimulation, and breaks up thick blood through anti-coagulant actions.


Basically, it helps fluids to move efficiently throughout the body. This action makes Red Clover particularly useful in the treatment of chronic skin conditions, such as eczema, psoriasis and acne, particularly in children.


Red clover is also known to be used in coughs and bronchitis, particularly helpful in suppressing uncontrollable coughs, and in aiding the lungs to expectorate stubborn and accumulated mucus (Another pediatric application - is useful in children who catch the dreadfully persistent whooping cough).


It action on the glands of the neck and sinuses also help clear post-nasal drip (stubborn mucus dripping down the throat from the sinuses).


As mentioned above, red clover gently stimulates the salivary glands, making a great remedy for side effects of radiation or any condition where saliva production is compromised.


It's also great for single swollen lymph nodes


Women's health


Red clover is useful in the treatment in women's health conditions with either estrogen deficiency and estrogen excess.


Red clover contains chemical called phytoestrogens (isoflavinoids) that actually binds and activates the estrogen receptor. This make Trifolium pratense useful in mitigating menopausal symptoms, a life-stage for females characterized by declining estrogen.


Symptoms such as hot flashes, sleeplessness, weight gain, vaginal dryness and anxiety, can be directly linked to estrogen deficiency. However, the small amount of research studies on the effect of Red Clover on menopausal symptoms show mixed results in efficacy.


Maybe it's because the shape of phytoestrogens in red clover do not exactly fit the receptors in the vasomotor system (system responsible for many symptoms in menopause). What if it fit perfectly in the other systems of the body with all different types of estrogen receptors? There is almost zero research on this effect of red Clover, but it's a possibility.


Estrogen plays a protective role in many aspects of female health, so when females go through menopause, they are at higher risk for cardiovascular disease, and osteoporosis.


Not only can the phytoestrogenic effect potentially prevent these conditions, but the added antioxidant (flavinoids), and blood-thinning properties (coumarins and salicylates) also help.


Here's the controversy - if red clover contains phytoestrogens, wouldn't that increase your risk for estrogen-dependent cancers?


This is the question asked all the time when it comes to plants with phytoestrogen compounds, such as red clover and soy. The answer isn't simple, but if you want a simple answer, it's probably not.


Phytoestrogens do bind to estrogen-receptors, but they're actually considered protective against estrogen-dependent cancer, such as breast and uterine. This effective has been found in soy, another phytoestrogenic plant.


This is because phytoestrogens can competitively bind to estrogen receptor, blocking cancer-causing Xenoestrogens (found in plastics, pollution, chemical cleaners, hormone-laden meats) from binding and overstimulating the receptor.


When phytoestrogens bind to the estrogen receptors, the signal is less intense, more regulating (just like our own endogenous estrogens), and some phytoestrogens can actually block the signal, exerting an antagonistic estrogen effect.


There hasn't been enough research to confirm this clinically, however preliminary research studies has found taking red clover for a year does not seem to increase endometrial growth (leading to uterine cancer).


However, due to the lack of strong evidence, it's suggested that women with a history of estrogen-positive breast cancer, or uterine cancer, should avoid the use of Red Clover.


Field of Red Clover | Annex-Naturopathic-Clinic-Toronto-Naturopathic-Doctor


Forms


You can get red clover as a standardized capsule in powder form, basically taking it as a standardized pharmaceuticalmedication.


There are many products on the market that will sell Red Clover in this form for the use of mitigating menopausal symptoms.


Dueof the lack of consistent in the evidence on whether red clover helps menopausal symptoms, the abundance of other herbs that treat these symptoms really well, and the lack evidence on the safety of this herb in estrogen-positive cancers, I don't generally tend to rely on Red clover to treat these symptoms, especially at these higher doses. Though daily consumption of the tea can be used as a nutritive food for post-menopausal women who would benefit from the phytoestrogenic compoundsto prevent long term health problems associated with estrogen-deficiency.


I like using Red Clover as a tea or as a low-dose tincture. With the alterative regulating nature of the herb, and the consistent traditional use of Red Clover as a lymphatic stimulator, blood thinner and affinity to the neck and head glands , I generally tend to use Red Clover for regulating and detoxifying the body, specifically for the conditions mentioned earlier.


In children, teas and low dose tincture have a strong effect but tend to be gentle enough to prevent any unwanted effects.


Caution


Do not use Red clover if you have history of estrogen-positive breast cancer or uterine cancer, if you're on blood thinners, or have a clotting disorder.


If you're curious to learn more about this subject or would like to consult with one of our NDs feel free to book a visit or contact us.


Yours in Health,


Dr. Tanya Lee, N.D

Annex Naturopathic Clinic

572 Bloor St W #201, Toronto, ON M6G 1K1

-https://goo.gl/maps/uVRBvcyoUa62



References

1)Hoffman D. Medical Herbalism. Rochester, Vermont: Healing Arts Press, 2003.

2) Wood, M. Book of Herbal Wisdom, Berkeley: North Atlantic Books, 1997

3) Romm, A. Herbal Medicine for Women, London: Elsevier Health Sciences, 2017




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Does Gluten Deserve its Bad Reputation?

Is Gluten Bad? | Annex-Naturopathic-Clinic-Toronto-Naturopathic-Doctor-in-the-Annex-July03-01


At our naturopathic clinic in Toronto, in recent years especially, our naturopathic doctors are being asked about gluten more regularly.


"Is it good for me?"


"Is it bad for me?"


The infamous protein explained.


Gluten-free is definitely fashionable- but is it functional? Many people are opting to eliminate gluten from their diets- often with no diagnosis of celiac disease or gluten sensitivity.


Unfortunately, gluten-free is not synonymous with healthy.


Many gluten-free products are high in sugar, preservatives and unlike wheat flour, they are not fortified with vitamins and minerals.


Nonetheless, many people feel better when they take gluten out of their diet.


What is gluten?


Gluten is substance found in the endosperm of wheat, rye and barley grains. It is comprised of the proteins Gliadin and Glutenin.


Grains, and how we consume them, differs from that of our ancestral history.


Today grains make up a major part of our diet- remember the food group pyramid you learned in school- where the foundation was grains?


Well, that food pyramid is not something we share in common with our early human ancestors who ate almost no grains at all. The domestication of wheat happened about 10,000 years ago.


In more recent history, composition of wheat has changed due to hybridization of strains which has increased wheat's gluten content dramatically.


Gluten Sensitivity | Annex-Naturopathic-Clinic-Toronto-Naturopathic-Doctor-in-the-Annex-July03-01


What is it about gluten containing grains that irritates our gut?


Gluten can increase zonulin, a protein in the gastrointestinal tract that can cause leaky gut. Leaky gut, or intestinal permeability, occurs when the tight junctions (the connection) between intestinal cells open up, allowing larger molecules that shouldn't cross the intestinal barrier, to go into the blood stream causing inflammation.


It may not be the gluten alone, but the herbicides used in conventional farming are likely contributing to intestinal imbalances.


Glyphosate is a commonly used herbicide used in grain farming. If a substance can kills weeds and bugs- think about what it could do to the microflora in our gut (our healthy bacteria).


Glyphosate is known to kill beneficial bacteria and decrease the absorption of certain vitamins and minerals.


We do not definitively know the reason for the rising prevalence of gluten sensitivity.


It may be that a combination of increased wheat consumption, increased gluten content of wheat, and rising glyphosate residues in conventional grain products are contributing to dysbiosis, intestinal inflammation, and ultimately gluten intolerance.


What should you do?


Recommendations, in terms of complete gluten elimination, need to be made on an individual basis via comprehensive assessment by a qualified healthcare provider.


However, here are some recommendations that will benefit most individuals:



  • Reduce consumption of grains so that your diet favours protein and vegetables.

  • Eat organic and ancient varieties of wheat (einkorn or emmer) which would reduce pesticide residues and gluten content.


See a naturopathic doctor to assess if you have celiac disease or a gluten sensitivity in order to have a comprehensive plan that allows for optimal nutrition and overall health.


If you're curious to learn more about this subject or would like to consult with one of our NDs feel free to book a visit or contact us.


Yours in Health,


Dr. Marnie Luck, N.D

Annex Naturopathic Clinic

572 Bloor St W #201, Toronto, ON M6G 1K1

-https://goo.gl/maps/uVRBvcyoUa62





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