How to Cook Brussels Sprouts

Brussels sprouts are probably one of the top vegetables that often get a bad rep, and are often disliked by many children and adults. But this nutrient-dense food is often misunderstood - and improperly cooked - which is why their delicious flavor isn't always maximized.


A member of the Brassica family, along with broccoli, kale and cauliflower, Brussels sprouts look like small, cabbage-like buds that grow on a large stalk.   This plant was cultivated in Italy during the Roman emperors' reigns, and was named after the city of Brussels, Belgium. The cultivation and consumption of this vegetable has been referenced since the 1200s.

The thing about Brussels sprouts is that they can be tricky to cook. Leave them on the stove for too long, and they will turnmushy, overly smelly and will lose their bright green color - a sign that they're overcooked, making them unappetizing.
However, if properly cooked, these vegetables will have a bright green color, a pleasant, nutty-sweet flavor and a mildly crisp texture.


How to Cook Brussels Sprouts: Prep Them Properly First


Whether you're making pan roasted, baked, sautéed, grilled, fried or steamed Brussels sprouts, there are three important preparation steps you need to follow: washing, trimming and cutting. Here are some basic steps to get you started. ,



  • Wash the Brussels sprouts using lukewarm water, either by running them under the tap or submerging them in water in a bowl for 10 minutes. Remember to use lukewarm water specifically, as it is better in removing dirt and chemicals than cold water.


While the first one is faster, the second method actually cleans them better, dislodging dirt and chemicals both on the exterior and in the inner folds of the leaves. You can also add baking soda to help clean Brussels sprouts more thoroughly. This is crucial if you're working with conventionally produced vegetables, as baking soda has been found to help remove pesticides better than just water.


According to one study, baking soda can remove as much as 96 percent of toxic pesticides that contaminate most  produce, such as the fungicide thiabendazole and the insecticide phosmet. The researchers used a concentration of about a teaspoon of baking soda for every two cups of water, which they deemed an effective ratio, and used it to gently scrub the produce for 12 to 15 minutes.


The only disadvantage with soaking them is that the Brussels sprouts can become waterlogged. If you're going to sauté, grill or roast them, you have to allow them to dry first.



  • Using a ceramic knife, trim a little bit of the tough stem off, which will make the vegetable more tender. Remember not to remove too much, no more than an eighth of an inch, or the leaves will fall apart while cooking. Afterward, remove any brown or yellow leaves, as they're already wilted.


 



  • Cut an X shape into the top of the sprouts if cooking them whole. This is because the outer leaves cook faster, and by the time the center is cooked, they will already be mushy and overcooked. By carving an X into the sprouts, they will cook more thoroughly. 



  • If cutting into smaller pieces, make sure that they're all the same size so they will cook evenly. The website Enjoy How to Cook recommends Brussels sprouts with diameters bigger than 1 1/2 inches to be cut in half. If you have a variety of sizes, bigger ones should be cut in quarters and medium sprouts in half.


 


Once you're done prepping, you can now try any of these methods to cook the sprouts. The sweet, delicate flavor of Brussels sprouts pairs well with bacon, beef and other meats, making them a delicious side dish. Each cooking method has its own advantage and disadvantages, so select the one that best suits your preference.


How to Cook Brussels Sprouts on the Stove: 3 Methods You Can Try


There are three ways to cook Brussels sprouts atop your stove: You can either sauté or fry them in a pan, boil them in a pot or steam them. Check out the differences between these methods:


How to Cook Brussels Sprouts in a Pan

Cooking Brussels sprouts in the pan not only retains their beneficial compounds better than steaming or boiling, but they also don't get too overcooked and they won't have a strong smell. Plus, it also lets them caramelize, bringing out their delicately sweet and nutty flavor. Here's how to cook Brussels sprouts in the pan:


Ingredients:

1/2 pounds Brussels sprouts, trimmed and halved lengthwise

1 1/2 tablespoons raw butter

1 tablespoon Dr. Mercola's coconut oil

2 tablespoons pine nuts

2 large garlic cloves, thinly sliced

Salt and pepper, to taste


Procedure:



  • Melt a tablespoon of butter in a pan with the coconut oil, over moderate heat. Add garlic and cook until pale golden. Transfer to a small bowl.

  • Reduce heat to low and arrange the sprouts in the pan, cut sides down, in one layer. Sprinkle with salt to taste. Let cook, without turning, for about 15 minutes or until the undersides are golden brown and crisp tender.

  • Transfer sprouts to a plate, browned sides up. Add more garlic and remaining 1/2 tablespoon butter to the pan and let cook over moderate heat, stirring, until the nuts are more evenly pale golden, about 1 minute.

  • Spoon this mixture over sprouts and sprinkle with pepper.


As a side dish, this recipe makes two to three servings.


How to Boil Brussels Sprouts


Take note that boiling Brussels sprouts can cause some of their flavor to leech out. However, if you're after a mild-tasting dish, then this would be perfect for you. Here's how to do it.


Ingredients:

1 quart Brussels sprouts, washed and prepped

1 1/2 cups water

1 teaspoon salt

1/4 teaspoon pepper

2 tablespoons raw butter

Pepper, to taste


Procedure:


  • Place the sprouts, salt and water in a saucepan, until completely submerged. Add more water if needed.
  • Cover the pan and boil sprouts gently, for 15 to 20 minutes, or until crisp tender.
  • Drain and season with butter pepper. Serve while hot.

How to Steam Brussels Sprouts


Steaming is a good way to cook Brussels sprouts, especially if you don't want to use oil or butter. It makes them tender but not overcooked, and they do not end up waterlogged or soggy. You can use a steam basket or just place the vegetables in the pan.


Direct Steaming Method:



  • Fill the pan with a half-inch of salt water and let boil.

  • Add the sprouts, cover and reduce the heat to medium-low. Let cook for five minutes or until sprouts have become tender to the bite or the water has evaporated.


Using a Steamer Basket:



  • Place an inch of water in a pan and let boil.

  • Place the sprouts in a steamer basket and place over the boiling water. Let steam for five minutes or until tender to the bite.


How to Cook Brussels Sprouts in the Oven


Roasting is a wonderful way to enjoy Brussels sprouts, mainly because it gives them a deeper flavor. The natural sugars in the vegetables are caramelized, highlighting their inherent sweetness. Here's what you should do:


Ingredients:

Brussels sprouts, prepped and halved or quartered

Coconut oil

Salt and pepper, to taste

Herbs and spices (optional)


Procedure:



  • Preheat oven to 400 degrees F.

  • Toss the sprouts with salt, pepper and coconut oil, and any herbs or spices you might like. Make sure the vegetables are thoroughly but thinly coated so they will not dry out.

  • Place the sprouts in a roasting pan, in a single layer and into the oven. Let cook for 35 to 40 minutes until they are nicely browned. Halfway through cooking, stir them. You can also add in pine nuts, cheese or almonds.

  • Serve and enjoy.


A great ingredient that will add a depth of flavor to oven-roasted Brussels sprouts is balsamic vinegar. You can check out my Balsamic Drizzled Brussels Sprouts recipe, a variation of the recipe above.


How to Cook Brussels Sprouts on the Grill


If you love hosting barbecues, then grilled Brussels sprouts will be a wonderful dish you can make. Grilling adds a smoky flavor to the sprouts, complementing its natural sweetness. Try this recipe:


Ingredients:


16 ounces of Brussels sprouts, halved

2 tablespoons raw butter, melted

2 teaspoons garlic powder

2 teaspoons cracked black pepper

A pinch of salt

1 lime, halved


Procedure:



  • Brush butter over the sprouts and season with pepper, garlic powder and salt.

  • Place the sprouts on the preheated grill and let cook until tender, and have grill marks. This would take about 10 minutes.

  • Before removing from the grill, squeeze lime juice over the sprouts. Serve while hot.


Here's a Healthy Meat Recipe That Features Brussels Sprouts


Brussels sprouts are versatile - as noted above, they can perfectly be served on their own, as a side dish or a healthy snack. However, you can also use them as an ingredient for another dish. Here's an example: Braised Pork Shanks recipe by Australian chef Pete Evans.


Ingredients:

2 organic pork shanks (about 2 pounds each)

1 pound Brussels sprouts, trimmed

Sea salt and freshly ground black pepper

3 tablespoons good-quality animal fat, plus extra if needed

6 French shallots, halved

3 garlic cloves, chopped

3 carrots, chopped

2 tablespoons tomato paste

3 tablespoons Dr. Mercola's apple cider vinegar

1/2 teaspoon crushed red pepper (optional)

1 rosemary sprig, leaves picked and roughly chopped

1/2 teaspoon fennel seeds, toasted

2 teaspoons paprika

14 ounces canned organic whole peeled tomatoes

6 cups organic chicken bone broth

2 bay leaves


Procedure:



  • Preheat the oven to 300 degrees Fahrenheit.

  • Season the pork shanks with salt and pepper. Melt the fat in a large flameproof casserole dish over medium-high heat. Add the pork shanks and cook, turning occasionally, for six minutes until golden brown. Remove the shanks from the dish and set aside.

  • Add more fat to the dish, if needed, then add the shallots, garlic and carrots, and cook, stirring occasionally, for five minutes.

  • Stir in the tomato paste and cook for a further minute until the vegetables are lightly caramelized. Add the vinegar, stir to deglaze and cook until the vinegar has evaporated, two to three minutes.

  • Pour in 1 cup of chicken broth, bring to a boil and simmer until reduced by half, about five minutes. Return the pork shanks to the dish, then add the Brussels sprouts, chili flakes (if using), rosemary, fennel seeds, paprika, tomatoes, remaining broth and bay leaves. Stir and bring to a boil.

  • Cover with a lid and cook in the oven for two hours.

  • Flip the pork shanks in the liquid, add more broth or water if needed, and cook for another two hours until the pork is tender and falling off the bone.

  • Remove the shanks and vegetables from the braising liquid with tongs.


This recipe makes 6 to 8 servings.


Brussels Sprouts Nutrition and Health Benefits


Despite being overshadowed by other Brassica family members, Brussels sprouts are one of the most nutritious vegetables out there. It's a good source of manganese, potassium, fiber, choline and even B vitamins.


In addition, they boast of an impressive array of antioxidants and phytochemicals, which may help fight diseases like cancer. Brussels sprouts contain glucosinolates, sulfur-containing compounds that your body uses to make isothiocyanates, which activate cancer-fighting enzyme systems in your body. These vegetables have been actually linked to the prevention of various cancers like colon, ovarian cancer and more.


Brussels sprouts also help prevent inflammation. Aside from vitamin C, they contain important antioxidants like isorhamnetin, kaempferol, ferulic and caffeic acids, and the relatively rare sulfur-containing compound called D3T (3H-1,2-dithiole-3-thione). These antioxidants help ward off chronic oxidative stress and curb inflammation in the body.


Don't Say 'No' to Brussels Sprouts - Learn to Cook Them Properly Instead


Brussels sprouts get a lot of hate from adults and children alike, but that's likely because they're not properly prepared. Follow the tips above when cooking these vegetables, so you can truly enjoy their crunchy texture and sweet, nutty flavor - who knows, this nutrient-dense green veggie may just turn out to be your new favorite food!

How Our Microbiota Keep Us Healthy

Annex Naturopathic


How Our Microbiota Keep Us Healthy | Annex Naturopathic Clinic | Toronto Naturopathic Doctors


I'm going to be writing more on the new research that I read on the microbiome.


The existing and emerging research continuously reinforces the fascinatingly strong influence these bugs have on our current health and heath outcomes.


I will get in to specifics in future blogs, but today I wanted to give a brief synopsis on how the microbiome influences our health.


This dynamic, complex system (technically, organ) of bacteria, known as the Microbiome, that resides all over and inside our bodies has been found to have such an important role in our health and the way we adapt to our external environment.


The largest portion of the human microbiome is housed in the large intestine (the gut), containing over 10 trillion bacteria (to put that in to context, that is about 10 times more than the amount of human cells in your body).


One of the most important roles of the gut microbiota is the influence on our immune system.


The our immune cells read “codes” called Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs) on the bacteria that tell our immune systems what to do - these codes are specific to each bacteria - good “commensal”  teaches our immune system to be balanced, and pathogenic bacteria contain codes that signal dysregulation.


Imbalances in the immune system play a role in virtually every disease.


Many seemingly separate conditions have been tied to the same imbalances of the immune system; inflammation and it's role in hypertension, mental health and the development of cancer, and autoimmune processes and their affinity on multiple organ systems in the body.


What's interesting about the microbiome is that these bugs are what teach our immune systems how to react and adapt to the given environment.


We have a mutualistic interaction with our microbiome, especially the gut microbiome. When the microbiome is well-balanced, nourished and overall healthy, we are the same.


The interactions of a healthy microbiome with the “host” (us) results in immune regulation/balance, efficient energy production and metabolism, great digestive health and a well-functioning liver.


Healthy microbes teach the immune system how to properly adapt to the environment, preventing unnecessary inflammation, and they also produce biochemicals and vitamins that help our bodies function efficiently.


Our Microbiota image | Annex Naturopathic Clinic | Toronto Naturopathic Doctors


A healthy microbiome will also protect you from invasive pathogens that want in on the real estate.


When the microbiome becomes “dysbiotic” (which means overgrowth with bad kinds of microbes, or even too much of a good type), it sends the immune system the wrong signals, promoting inflammation, and producing noxious metabolites that burden our bodies rather than helping it.


Dysbiosis of the gut microbiome in particular has been linked to many diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, diabetes, cancer, allergies, autoimmune disease and asthma.


Dysbiosis can be caused by many different factors.


For many people it actually starts from birth.


It's been established and well-accepted by the scientific community that babies born via C-section, or who are not breast-fed, have a different, dysbiotic, gut microbiome than babies who were born vaginally or are exclusively breast fed, leading to higher rates of asthma, allergies, Celiac disease and obesity.


This is why it's important to intervene early with probiotics a child is not born vaginally or is not breast-fed for many reasons.


Dysbiosis can also be caused by taking multiple rounds of antibiotics, especially if not counteracted by using probiotic during and after using the antibiotics.


As antibiotics wipe out the infective bacteria, it wipes out some of our good bacteria with it, leaving space.


This type of dysbiosis makes us more susceptible to catching bad, invasive bacteria and parasites that now have opportunity to occupy this space.


Dysbiosis can also occur if you've caught a parasite, or some invasive bug while drinking water in a different part of the world, or if you eat something not quite cooked.


Most importantly, dysbiosis is highly promoted by an unhealthy diet.


Just like us, your microbiome needs to be fed the right substances to be healthy, strong and efficient.


If you feed it bad food, such as refined sugars and starches, transfats, a diet full of meat, and nutrient-void foods, your microbiome will not be strong, leading to poor health.


You'd be surprised how many of our everyday foods actually are considered “prebiotics” and aid in the health of our gut microbiome.


You won't be surprised to hear that colour fruits and vegetables, healthy fibres from non-GMO grains, and colour spices are great sources of prebiotics.


Fermented foods such as saurkraut, kimchi, kefir, and properly made yogurts are major sources of prebiotics if you want to get serious about feeding the microbiome.


Naturopathic doctors have been aware of and treating the microbiome for decades - we are excellent sources for dietary recommendations on how to maintain the health of your microbiome as well as strategic treatments on how to rebalance your gut microbial flora.


Obvious signs that you might have problems with the balance of your microbiome include digestive problems, or recurrent infections of any sort - if you suffer from these afflictions, it would be helpful to consult with a doctor that can help you rebalance your flora and prevent chronic disease.


Stay tuned for more up-to-date information and interesting research on the microbiome and its affect on your daily health.


 



If you're curious to learn more about this subject or would like to consult with one of our NDs feel free to book a visit or contact us.


Yours in Health,





Annex Naturopathic Clinic

572 Bloor St W #201, Toronto, ON M6G 1K1

-https://goo.gl/maps/uVRBvcyoUa62






References



  • Azad MB et. al. Gut microbiota of healthy Canadian infants: profiles by mode of delivery and infant diet at 4 months. 2013 Mar 19;185(5):385-94

  • Min YW, Rhee PL.The Role of Microbiota on the Gut Immunology.Clin Ther. 2015 May 1;37(5):968-75.

  • Palm NW et. al. Immune-microbiota interactions in health and disease.Clin Immunol. 2015 Aug;159(2):122-127

  • Rutayisire E. et. al. The mode of delivery affects the diversity and colonization pattern of the gut microbiota during the first year of infants' life: a systematic review.BMC Gastroenterol. 2016 Jul 30;16(1):86

  • Schnabl B, Brenner DA. Interactions between the intestinal microbiome and liver diseases. 2014 May;146(6):1513-24


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Botanical of the Month – Maiden Hair tree (Gingko biloba)

Annex Naturopathic


Gingko biloba benefits | Annex Naturopathic Clinic | Toronto Naturopathic Doctors


As a naturopath, when I think of Gingko biloba, I think of words such as hope, vitality, resiliency, and patience.


This majestic tree has shown us that it embodies these exact words in the most horrific circumstances - 1945 Hiroshima atomic bomb destroyed everything within its epicentre, except six Gingko biloba trees, which even sprouted new greenery days after the terrible event.


This example of the resilience and vitality of this beautiful herb is translated in to its medicinal use and how it can help us become representations of these words.


Gingko biloba produces fruit that has been used in traditional Chinese medicine.


When they fall and start to decay, they produce a very unpleasant odour, one could compare to a pair of stinky feet.


So many who front this tree on their lawns must bare with this one downfall of having this tree in their presence.


This downfall, however, is completely superseded by the amazing beauty, elegance and medicine benefit of being around such a remarkable creation of nature.


Parts Used


Leaf, (seeds in Chinese medicine, not typically used in Western Medicine)


Actions


Astringent, Bitter, Warming, Moving


Uses


Edibility


Ginkgo is not considered an edible plant


Medicine


The actions of Gingko biloba on the human body can be represented as low and slow, and requires patience.


The medicinal properties of this tree are the strongest when used over a course of time.


Memory and circulation


The most commonly known medicinal property for Gingko leaves is its effect on memory, making this herb a “nootropic”.


Gingko has been heavily marketed to the public to be used to “improve and strengthen memory”, as people bought in to this claim, it's not surprising the feedback that many found that they didn't feel this at all worked.


Gingko indeed does improve memory but the application of this herb in this context is flawed.


This herbs works slow - expectations that this herb will work within a few weeks is not accurate - so if you're a student looking to strengthen your memory in a week for an exam, gingko is NOT the herb for you.


Ginkgo has it's best effect when used over a long period of time to establish its effects in the body and it works on memory in two ways: 1) Vasodilation and 2) Reducing blood viscosity.


This means that the biochemicals in Gingko will help open up the blood vessels as well has thinning the blood, allowing blood to flow more freely within the vessel, increasing microperfusion to the brain - more blood flow to and within the brain means more oxygen and protection to the brain.


Gingko also protects the brain through antioxidant biochemicals, protecting the brain from tissues damage caused by lack of oxygen, and increasing mitochondrial function therefore increasing energy production in the brain.


There is a plethora of research supporting the effect of Gingko in the improvement of memory and cognitive function in those with dementia and Alzheimer's disease, especially if these conditions are a result of vascular insufficiency.


However there are many trials that do not support this, resulting in review studies performed between 2003-2014 concluding the research is too inconsistent to support Gingko in this context.


The varying results come from inconsistencies in dosage, administration and inclusion criteria set out by each trial.


One of the most recent meta-analysis on Gingko biloba research performed by Tan et. al (2015) took in to account these flaws and came to the conclusion that 240mg of standardized Ginkgo daily improved cognitive function and prevented decline in patients with dementia after 24 weeks, especially for those who also exhibited neuropsychiatric symptoms.


Another recent review study by Yuan et. al (2017) also concluded similar results that Gingko biloba improved cognitive function in those with Alzheimer's at a dose over 200mg/day if taken for at least 5 weeks.


These review show promise and exemplify the need for higher quality, larger-scale studies in order to demonstrate the efficacy of Gingko biloba in the treatment of dementia.


Prevention of cognitive decline in healthy individuals is still not well represented in the research, but traditional use and anecdotal evidence supports the use of this herb for this purpose.


The effect of Gingko on blood flow doesn't just stop at memory.


These properties translate in to effects on the peripheral body as well.


There are promising outcomes represented in the research of using Gingko in the treatment of cerebral insufficiency in stroke victims, peripheral artery disease, prevention of coronary artery disease by reducing plaque formation, diabetic neuropathy, Raynauds and thrombosis (blood clots).


Tinnitus


There are claims that Gingko can be useful in the treatment of tinnitus, though studies are limited and results are inconsisent.


The most recent Cochrane Review on Gingko and Tinnitus found Ginkgo only to be beneficial when tinnitus is associated with dementia, not when tinnitus is the sole symptom.


This reflects back to the circulatory actions of gingko - when tinnitus is a result of poor cerebrovascular circulation, appears to be effective.


If it's due to other reasons, the effects of Gingko appear to be less impactful on tinnitus symptoms.


benefits of Gingko biloba | Annex Naturopathic Clinic | Toronto Naturopathic Doctors


Forms


Traditionally Gingko biloba taken through infusion (tea) - this application is best for people who want to use Gingko for daily prevention of cognitive decline.


Tinctures of Gingko leaf also provides a gentle and supportive effect.


I typically use these forms for healthy, older individuals who want to keep their memory sharp and encourage blood flow to the brain.


Much of the research on Gingko biloba use and support standardized extracts of Gingko at dosages of 120-240mg/day.


Extremely potent extracts of Gingko (50:1) are considered pharmaceutical grade substances and should not be dosed unless monitored by a health care professional.


Safety


Gingko biloba is considered a safe herb to use if used at the standard recommended dose (see above)


Interactions


The blood-thinning effects of Ginkgo has made many clinicians weary about using this herb with blood thinning pharmaceuticals.


However, it has been found that the blood-thinning effects of Gingko are not related to reducing platelet count, but inhibiting platelet aggregating factor (PAF), so the that use with blood thinners may not be as detrimental as previously thought, with many studies demonstrating using Ginkgo (up to 240mg) in conjunction with blood thinning medication does not increase bleeding risk or influence coagulation time.


Nonetheless, do no use Gingko if you are on blood thinners and consult with a physician that is familiar with herb-drug interactions before use of this herb - one of the only cases of increased bleeding is when using the extremely potent extract (50:1) in combination with blood thinners


Do not use with drug exhibiting monoamine-oxidase activity (such as certain antidepressants), or anti-epileptic drugs.


Always consult a physician familiar with herb-drug interaction if you're on medication and are considering using this herb.


 



If you're curious to learn more about this subject or would like to consult with one of our NDs feel free to book a visit or contact us.


Yours in Health,





Annex Naturopathic Clinic

572 Bloor St W #201, Toronto, ON M6G 1K1

-https://goo.gl/maps/uVRBvcyoUa62






Referrences



  1. Hoffman D. Medical Herbalism. Rochester, Vermont: Healing Arts Press, 2003.

  2. Bone K. Principles and Practice of Phytotherapy. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 2000.

  3. Carlson JJ et. al. Safety and efficacy of a ginkgo biloba-containing dietary supplement on cognitive function, quality of life, and platelet function in healthy, cognitively intact older adults.J Am Diet Assoc. 2007 Mar;107(3):422-32.

  4. Hilton MP, Zimmermann EF, Hunt WT.Ginkgo biloba for tinnitus.Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Mar 28;(3)

  5. Tan MS et. al. Efficacy and adverse effects of ginkgo biloba for cognitive impairment and dementia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.J Alzheimers Dis. 2015;43(2):589-603

  6. Yuan Q al Effects of Ginkgo biloba on dementia: An overview of systematic reviews.J Ethnopharmacol. 2017 Jan 4;195:1-9


 


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Neurolymphatic System Discovered Linking Brain and Immune System

Node Smith, ND


Big News on How Every Neurological Disease is Approached


Last week, a research team from the University of Virginia School of Medicine has shown that the brain is directly connected to the immune system through lymphatic vessels.1 These vessels were not previously thought to exist, and it is incredible that they have escaped detection until now. The significance of the discovery is massive and will influence new considerations in how every neurological disease is approached – from Alzheimer's to multiple sclerosis.


New Discovery Changes Perception of Neuro-immune Interaction


Because now the brain is known to be connected to the lymphatic system, “it changes entirely the way we perceive the neuro-immune interaction,” says Jonathan Kipnis, PhD, professor at UVA department of Neuroscience and director of UVA's Center for Brain Immunology and Glia (BIG). It was previously thought that the interactions between the brain and the immune system were much more esoteric, now it can be approached in a much more mechanistic manner.


Textbooks will need to be Altered to Reflect this Discovery


This discovery does in fact mean that textbooks will need to be altered to reflect a meningeal lymphatic system which connects to the larger suboccipital chain.


Discovery Made by Antoine Louveau, PhD, a Postdoctoral Fellow in Kipnis' Lab


The discovery was made by Antoine Louveau, PhD, a postdoctoral fellow in Kipnis' lab. The meningeal vessels were found after the development of a new method to mount a mouse's meninges on a single slide. The meninges were fixed within the skullcap, and then dissected, thereby securing it in its physiological condition. On these slides they noticed vessel-like patterns in the distribution of immune cells. They turned out to be lymphatic vessels when tested.


Maps of the lymphatic system: old (left) and updated to reflect UVA's discovery. Image credit: University of Virginia Health System.


Reason Behind Why This Discovery Was Hidden for so Long


The reason that these lymphatic vessels stayed hidden for so long was that they follow blood vessels down into the sinuses, and are located in hard to image areas. They are so close to the blood vessels, that they were just missed.


Source:



  1. Louveau A, Smirnov I, Keyes TJ, et al. Structural and functional features of central nervous system lymphatic vessels. Nature. 2015;523(7560):337-41.


Image Copyright: greenvector / 123RF Stock Photo



Node Smith, ND, is a naturopathic physician in Portland, OR and associate editor for NDNR. He has been instrumental in maintaining a firm connection to the philosophy and heritage of naturopathic medicine among the next generation of docs. He helped found the first multi-generational experiential retreat, which brings elders, alumni, and students together for a weekend camp-out where naturopathic medicine and medical philosophy are experienced in nature. Four years ago he helped found the non-profit, Association for Naturopathic ReVitalization (ANR), for which he serves as the board chairman. ANR has a mission to inspire health practitioners to embody the naturopathic principles through experiential education. Node also has a firm belief that the next era of naturopathic medicine will see a resurgence of in-patient facilities which use fasting, earthing, hydrotherapy and homeopathy to bring people back from chronic diseases of modern living; he is involved in numerous conversations and projects to bring about this vision.


The post Neurolymphatic System Discovered Linking Brain and Immune System appeared first on NaturalPath.

Baked Acorn Squash Recipe

Annex Naturopathic


Healthy acorn squash recipe | Annex Naturopathic Clinic | Toronto Naturopathic Doctors


Winter squashes and pumpkins are robust “fruits” that are harvested in the fall so we can use them throughout the winter.


Keeping them in a dark cool place will preserve these foods to give us nutrient-packed meals that are warming, healthy and delicious.


One of my favourite things to eat during the winter are winter squashes - particularly acorn squash, due to it's abundance in vegetable markets in Ontario and for it's sweet, buttery taste.


I use these in casseroles, bakes, mash them in place of white potato or simply bake them in the oven.


Acorn squash is a great source of low glycemic-load carbohydrates - this means that despite it being a source of carbohydrates, it won't spike your blood sugar (therefore insulin) to the extent other carbohydrates such as wheat-based carbohydrates (and other grains) will increase your blood sugars after eating.


They are also easier to digest than grains, which makes it suitable carbohydrate source for people who experience a lot of bloating and bowel movement problems.


Acorn squash is rich in antioxidant vitamins C and A (beta-carotene, hence the orange colour!), potassium (great for lowering high blood pressure) and a great source of fibre (valuble for those with diabetes and cardiovascular disease).


Healthy acorn squash dish | Annex Naturopathic Clinic | Toronto Naturopathic Doctors


Ingredients:



  • I medium acorn squash

  • 1 tbsp of grass-fed/organic butter (or olive oil)

  • 1-2 cloves of garlic - minced

  • pinch of sea salt

  • pinch of dried rosemary

  • pinch of dried thyme

  • fresh cracked black pepper


Directions:



  1. Preheat oven to 350 degrees F (175 degrees C).

  2. Use a cookie sheet lined with parchment paper (or lightly oil the cookie sheet to prevent sticking) and place the acorn squash upside down (flesh side down). Once the oven is preheated, place the acorn squash in the oven and let it bake for about 30 minutes (it will be slightly soft)

  3. In the meantime if using butter - lightly liquify the butter in a small pan over low heat with the minced garlic (don't overheat!), soon before (about 10 minutes before) you pull the squash out of the oven (no need to heat if you're using olive oil).

    If you're using olive oil, combine the garlic with the olive oil when first placing the squash in to the oven to allow the garlic to infuse in to the oil for 30 mins

  4. Pull the acorn squash out of the oven. Carefully turn the squash flesh side up, and generously brush the butter/olive oil and garlic mixture over the entire flesh surface of the squash. Make sure the garlic also makes it on to the flesh

  5. Sprinkle salt, thyme and rosemary all over the flesh side of the acorn squash and place the squash back in to the oven and bake for another 30 minutes

  6. After 30 minutes, pull the squash from the oven, season with freshly cracked black pepper, wait 5-10 minutes to allow the squash to cool and serve!



If you're curious to learn more about this subject or would like to consult with one of our NDs feel free to book a visit or contact us.


Yours in Health,





Annex Naturopathic Clinic

572 Bloor St W #201, Toronto, ON M6G 1K1

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Why You Have Insufficient Vitamin D If You Live In Canada

Annex Naturopathic


You Have Insufficient Vitamin D In Canada | Annex Naturopathic Clinic | Toronto Naturopathic Doctors


Most people are aware that they should supplement with vitamin D.


Few people are actually taking the appropriate dose to correct for vitamin deficiency or attain optimal levels.


Here are the facts about vitamin D.


What is Vitamin D?


Vitamin D is very different from other nutrients because unlike other vitamins, it is NOT naturally occurring in most of the foods we eat.


Very small amounts can be found in fish, beef liver, egg yolks and fortified foods.


Alternatively, humans (and other mammals) require the sun's UVB radiation to synthesize Vitamin D in the the skin.


Here's how UVB radiation from the sun to makes contact with our skin and  produce vitamin D:



  • We have ample amounts of the vitamin D precursor “7-dehydro-cholesterol” circulating in our blood stream - and it is specifically concentrated within our skin.

  • When UVB radiation hits our skin, it converts the “7-dehydro-cholesterol” to “Cholecalciferol” aka Vitamin D3.


Factors that influence Vitamin D conversion via the sun.



  • Skin colour: it takes about 20 minutes to convert 10 000 of vitamin D in someone with light skin, and up to 120 minutes in someone with dark skin.

  • How high the sun is in the sky: the shadow your body casts must be shorter in length than your height in order for synthesis to occur.

  • Latitude and season: building off the point above, at certain latitudes during certain seasons, the sun is never high enough in the sky to be able to convert vitamin D in your skin. For example, in Toronto, Canada, at a latitude of 43 degree North, there is no vitamin D conversion from November through February.


When we take vitamin D supplements, we are orally ingesting “cholecalciferol” or “Vitamin D3” and thus we no longer require the sun's help for conversion.


However, the “cholecalciferol” is not the end point for vitamin D as there are a few more steps to get to the active form vitamin D.


Conversion of Cholecalciferol to 25-Hydroxy-Vitamin D


The Cholecalciferol (Vitamin D3) travels to the liver and is converted to “Calcidiol” (aka 25-Hydroxy-Vitamin D.


25-Hydroxy-Vitamin D is the component in our blood that is used as a marker for Vitamin D status.


Conversion of 25-Hydroxy-Vitamin D to Calcitriol


The calcidiol, or 25-Hydroxy-Vitamin D, is like a blank piece of paper and must be converted by the kidneys and other tissues to the active form “calcitriol”.


It is is this form of vitamin D that exerts different effects on the body - acting more like a hormone than a vitamin in the way that it interacts with different receptors.


Actions of Calcitriol- the biologically active form of Vitamin D


Vitamin D plays an essential role in calcium utilization and metabolism of calcium and therefore is important in the maintenance of healthy bones.


As more research emerges, there are many “non-classical” actions vitamin D exerts on the body including:



  • Modulation of immune function.

  • Regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation.

  • Control of other hormonal systems


Therefore, it is not surprising that Vitamin D deficiency is associated with:



  • Immunological diseases (infections, autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis and type 1 diabetes).

  • Cancer and increased mortality.

  • Cardiovascular and metabolic diseases.


Insufficient Vitamin D | Annex Naturopathic Clinic | Toronto Naturopathic Doctors


Importance of Testing for Vitamin D Status


Health Canada recommends a daily intake of  400 IU for infants, 600 IU for children and adults, and 800 IU for adults over 70.


Supplementation at these amounts will not correct for deficiency, let alone maintain adequate status during the winter months.


Implementation of high dose vitamin D may be required to achieve optimal levels to improve overall health.


It is important to assess Vitamin D status by running blood work that includes 25-Hydroxy-Vitamin D prior to implementing high dose supplementation.


This test is not covered by OHIP, nor is it routinely run by MDs.


Naturopathic doctors routinely run serum Vitamin D in order to safely prescribe high doses (often up to 10 000 IU daily)  in those individuals who are deficient.


What should you do?


Most people can safely supplement with up to 4000 IU daily.


However, to achieve optimal levels and ensure safety it is important have a thorough assessment done, including testing for vitamin D.


Seeking guidance from a local naturopath is an effective option.


 



If you're curious to learn more about this subject or would like to consult with one of our NDs feel free to book a visit or contact us.


Yours in Health,





Annex Naturopathic Clinic

572 Bloor St W #201, Toronto, ON M6G 1K1

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To learn more info about health, wellness, and alternative medicine, please visit us here: naturopathic clinics toronto

Amazing Herbal Teas for Health and Beauty

To get more information about health, wellness, and alternative medicine, please visit us here: goo.gl/D8Phu0 - #TW


Herbal Teas and Their Health Benefits
Persimmon Tea: The leaves when dried and crushed make a fine strong tea. Can be used all year round. Rich in Vitamin C. Used as a healthful tonic.
Sassafras Tea: Boil fresh roots after washing, until water turns reddish brown. Can be sliced and dried for later use. Claimed by some to be a blood thinner, a blood purifier, to help Bronchitis, a stimulating spring tonic. Mostly it is used for pure enjoyment.
Birch Tea (Wintergreen): Black, yellow and white Birch. Dried leaves can be used year round. A large handful of fresh leaves steeped in hot water was drunk 1 to 2 cups a day for Rheumatism and Headaches. Said to reduce pain of passing Kidney Stones, and a Fever reducer. Cold it was used as a mouthwash.
Blackberry/Raspberry Tea: The dried mature...
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5 Simple Resolutions That Benefit Everyone

Annex Naturopathic


Healty New Year's Resolutions | Annex Naturopathic Clinic | Toronto Naturopathic Doctors


The new year is a great time to reset and create intentions for the following months.


Health is the foundation of life.


Our health is not limited to our physical parameters.


It also includes our emotional and spiritual health.


Here are some resolutions alongside specific actions that you can implement this year.


And, if you need some help getting back on track in 2018, the NDs at Annex Naturopathic Clinic are here to support you.


1. Create healthy boundaries with technology and social media.


Here's how:



  • Get an alarm clock so that your phone isn't the first thing you look at in the morning and the last thing you interact with at night. Try to get 30 minutes of screen-free time before bed.

  • Leave your phone in you pocket/ purse (preferably on airplane mode) when you're with friend and family.

  • Delete apps that you may have an addiction to. Take breaks from social media. Ask yourself, “is this adding value to my life?” If not, perhaps you can distance yourself from it.


2. Increase your vegetable (especially GREEN vegetable) intake.


Here's how:



  • Ensure you have vegetables in your fridge. Great options include:

    • Pre-washed organic salads mixes. It's easy to just add a healthy dressing like olive oil and balsamic vinegar, throw in a container and eat!

    • Broccoli, cauliflower, brussels sprouts are nutrient dense and keep well in the fridge. Simply chop up, steam or roast and eat with olive oil, salt and pepper.



  • Choose the side salad option when eating out.

  • Throw a handful of spinach or mixed greens into your smoothie.


New Year's Resolutions Diet | Annex Naturopathic Clinic | Toronto Naturopathic Doctors


3. Begin the day with a big glass of water.


Here's how:



  • Upon rising, head straight to the kitchen and fill yourself a pint-sized glass of water.

  • Finishing drinking your water before having any caffeinated beverages (coffee and tea can be dehydrating- especially first thing in the morning).


4. Focus on what's going “right” in your life.


Here how:



  • Write done 3 good things that happened to you each day.

  • Savour the moment- for at least 7 seconds. Moments to savour can be anything- like time spent in nature, a tasty meal or the comfort of a hot bath. Let yourself enjoy.

  • Celebrate the small wins. Taking note of the small steps forward and focusing on the little changesgives you a sense of accomplishment.


5. Spend more time in nature.


Here's how:



  • Make use of city parks. Whether it be on your lunch break or on your walk home - spending some time outside, amongst the trees can help alleviate stress.

  • Take road trips outside the city and explore.

  • Camping (or glamping if you aren't into roughing it) allows you to have some sustained time in the great outdoors and will often calm a part of your soul that needs it most.


Hopefully some of these resolutions - or intentions- resonate with you.


 



If you're curious to learn more about this subject or would like to consult with one of our NDs feel free to book a visit or contact us.


Yours in Health,





Annex Naturopathic Clinic

572 Bloor St W #201, Toronto, ON M6G 1K1

-https://goo.gl/maps/uVRBvcyoUa62






To discover more info on health, wellness, and alternative medicine, please visit us here: naturopaths

Quick Heartburn Relief

You'll need to find a carpeted area for this Heartburn remedy called a heel drop. This sounds strange, but it works.


Roll up onto your toes as high as you can, and then allow your heels to quickly drop down onto the ground. Repeat this 20 to 30 times, holding onto the back of a chair for balance if you need to.


The downward motion pulls the acid that causes Heartburn back into your stomach.


Natural Remedy to Help Acid Reflux, Heartburn and GERD


Acid Free-Flux is a safe, non-addictive, FDA-registered natural remedy containing 100% homeopathic ingredients selected to relieve acid reflux and heartburn.


Acid Free-Flux safely maintains harmony, health and systemic balance in the stomach and digestive system, and soothes the lining of the stomach and esophagus, without harmful side effects.


This remedy contains a selection of homeopathic ingredients known to relieve burning sensations and indigestion after eating due to excessive acid.


Learn more about Acid Free-Flux now.

Why do we promote this?


Are You Always Tired? Root Causes of Fatigue

Annex Naturopathic


The causes of fatigue | Annex Naturopathic Clinic | Naturopath Toronto


Many people wish they had more energy.


Chronic fatigue and generalized low energy are common concerns that naturopathic doctors excel in treating.


People feel “tired” in different ways. Some people feel sluggish and lethargic in their body, while others may feel mentally fatigued.


Identifying and addressing the root causes of fatigue and implementing targeted treatment enables people to have a significantly better quality of life.


Here are some reasons you may be tired:


1. Nutritional Deficiencies


Low Iron


Iron is the component of red blood cells that brings oxygen to all parts of your body.


Low iron can leave you tired, pale and irritable.


Many women have low iron because they menstruate (bleed) monthly.


Low B12


Vitamin B12 is a nutrient primarily found in animal products.


B12 plays a role in energy production, nerve health and red blood cell synthesis.


Vegan diets (purely plant based) are very low in B12 and require supplementation.


Additionally, people who have digestive concerns or take certain medications may not be able to properly absorb B12 and can become deficient.


Low Vitamin D


Most Canadians have insufficient amounts of circulating vitamin D.


Vitamin D is necessary for many different processes in the body, one of which is its role in bone and muscle health.


People who are vitamin D deficient may have weakening of the muscles which can make someone feel tired and heavy in their body.


Inadequate Macro-Nutrients


Some people may not be getting enough protein, fat or carbohydrates (also known as macro-nutrients) to meet their energy requirements throughout the day.


When there is insufficient calorie intake, the body will not be able to burn fuel and produce energy effectively.


2. Thyroid Problems


The thyroid regulates metabolism and energy production. When our thyroid is “under-active” or “hypo-functioning” fatigue is the hallmark symptom.


Certain factors can adversely affect the thyroid:


Stress


When someone is under chronic stress, cortisol increases and it signals to the thyroid to decrease thyroid hormone production.


Further more, when our body is persistently under stress, our body begins to convert “T4” (the abundant, yet inactive thyroid hormone) into “Reverse T3” instead of the active “T3” hormone.


Inflammation


When the immune system becomes dysregulated due to inflammation present in the body- often  because of irritation in the gut, obesity, poor diet, stress and infections- autoimmunity against the thyroid can occur.


This is referred to as Hashimoto's Thyroiditis which can cause the thyroid to stop producing adequate amounts of hormone.


Nutritional deficiencies


The thyroid depends on certain nutrients to produce hormone.


Tyrosine, an amino acid found in protein sources, serves as the backbone of T3 and T4.


Iodine is the other essential component. Adequate amounts of zinc and selenium are also needed for the transport and production thyroid hormones.


Why you are always tired | Annex Naturopathic Clinic | Naturopath Toronto


3. Adrenal Fatigue


Amongst other functions, our adrenal glands release cortisol and adrenaline into the bloodstream in response to stress and energy requirements.


Cortisol has many functions.


When the adrenal glands are overworked, inadequate and inconsistent production of cortisol can lead to adrenal fatigue, and thus, low energy.


These are the major contributing factors:


Stress


Chronic or repetitive stress will result in prolonged elevation of cortisol that ultimately exhausts the adrenal glands.


This leads to overall low cortisol production which can result in chronic fatigue and extreme difficulty getting out of bed in the morning.


Inconsistent Sleep


Our bodies rely on a diurnal (daily) rhythm including sleep pattern that remains relatively consistent.


This ensures that our cortisol rises in the morning, reaching its peak midday, and drops slowly, reaching its lowest point at night.


People who work night shifts, or go to bed and wake up at inconsistent times, dysregulate their diurnal pattern and cortisol pattern.


If you're feeling tired- there is likely a reason.


The Naturopathic Doctors at Annex Naturopathic are experienced at treating the root causes of low energy.


Our NDs complete a compressive assessment and routine and specialized testing to identify thyroid and dysfunction, as well as nutrient deficiencies.


 



If you're curious to learn more about this subject or would like to consult with one of our NDs feel free to book a visit or contact us.


Yours in Health,





Annex Naturopathic Clinic

572 Bloor St W #201, Toronto, ON M6G 1K1

-https://goo.gl/maps/uVRBvcyoUa62






To read additional info about health, wellness, and alternative medicine, please visit us here: naturopathic toronto

Top 5 Ways to Improve Digestion

Annex Naturopathic


Ways to Improve Digestion - Fresh Salad | Annex Naturopathic Clinic | Naturopath Toronto


Digestive concerns are very common issue that we see here at Annex Naturopathic Clinic.


The following are some important tips to consider if you currently are experiencing or do experience digestive problems.


1. Chew your food.


A wise man once said, “your stomach doesn't have teeth” and that's one of the reasons we must thoroughly chew our food.


An integral part of the digestive process starts in our mouths.


Chewing, alongside the digestive enzymes in our saliva, starts the process of breaking down food so that the stomach acid and other enzymes released further down the gastrointestinal tract are better able to function.


Not chewing your food leads to symptoms of indigestion and decreases nutrient absorption.


2. Stop multi-tasking.


Our brain and our gut are connected.


When our brain is focused on tasks other than eating (replying to emails, driving, Instagram, ect.) our body is not is an ideal position to digest food.


Not to mention we often we faster and larger quantities when we are multi-tasking.


3. Slow down and relax.


To build of the last point, when you stop multi-tasking and slow down before you eat you allow the body to settle into its “parasympathetic” nervous system, also know as our “rest and digest” nervous system.


When we are on-the-go, working or multi-tasking our “sympathetic” nervous system is predominant.


When we are in this state, we are primed to be on alert, with blood flow moving towards our brain and periphery- away from on digestive tract.


Taking a few deep breaths and relaxing while you eat (eating with others helps) you will digest your meal better.


Ways to Improve Digestion - Healthy Eating | Annex Naturopathic Clinic | Naturopath Toronto


4. Avoid excess liquids around meals.


A common misconception regarding diet is that we should drink a lot of water with our meals.


This is problematic as excess liquid intake around meals will actually dilute our gastric juices- like stomach acid and other digestive enzymes- making it harder to break down food.


It is best to avoid drinking large quantities of water or other liquids 30 minutes before and after meals.


Sipping beverages with your meal will not cause an issues.


5. Eat when you are hungry.


Often people are eating for other reasons than hunger.


People eat because it is lunchtime- even though they may have ate a late breakfast.


People eat because they are tired, stressed, bored or sad.


Making sure you are actually hungry when you eat will improve digestion as your body is primed to receive food.


You'll notice when you are hungry and you see your food and can sense you saliva production begin to increase.


At this point, you should implement the above 4 points and have significantly improved digestion.


 



If you're curious to learn more about this subject or would like to consult with one of our NDs feel free to book a visit or contact us.


Yours in Health,





Annex Naturopathic Clinic

572 Bloor St W #201, Toronto, ON M6G 1K1

-https://goo.gl/maps/uVRBvcyoUa62






To read more information on health, wellness, and alternative medicine, please visit us here: holistic doctor